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Journal of Enterprise Architecture 2016 Abstracts
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Abstracts from the Journal of Enterprise Architecture 2016,
issue No. 4

Short Subject
Don’t Use the A Word!
By Alberto S. Llanes, PhD and Maynard Avery Austin III, Esq.

Enterprise architecture’s diversity is both its strength and weakness. We must unify as a community for both the sake of our chosen profession and the benefit of our stakeholders.

Different Approaches to Enterprise Architecture
By Svyatoslav Kotusev

Enterprise Architecture (EA) is a description of an enterprise from an integrated business and IT perspective intended to bridge the communication gap between business and IT stakeholders and, thereby, improve business and IT alignment. Unfortunately, many companies are dissatisfied with popular heavyweight approaches to EA due to their excessive clumsiness and rigidity. At the same time, alternative lightweight and flexible approaches to EA have also been proposed; however, their existence is not widely acknowledged. In this article I briefly describe these alternative approaches to EA, compare them with the widely-known heavyweight approach, and illustrate their applications in real companies.

Theoretical Perspectives of Enterprise Architecture for Technological Transformation
By Torben Tambo

The purpose of this article is to investigate the completeness of the theoretical foundations of Enterprise Architecture (EA) by reviewing four selected disciplines from Management of Technology (MOT). Often theory on EA is based on prior EA contributions or more distant contributions such as service science, semiotics, psycho-social constructs, business process analytics, and systems science. It is here argued that other theories might be more supportive to EA. The current article is based on a review of the MOT literature and a subsequent literature review within each of the four specialized disciplines. Furthermore, the article includes two qualitative, longitudinal case studies mapped onto the four disciplines. It is demonstrated that EA can benefit from theoretical positions closer to EA than usually selected. It is furthermore demonstrated that innovation and technology management significantly overlap EA, for which reason they could eventually be amalgamated. A model view is proposed where activities of EA are augmented with the four theoretical positions. EA is occasionally self-referential in its theoretical argument. As a research implication, this article suggests aligning EA with closely-related activities of the enterprise. EA is often at risk in the enterprise to be retrospective towards changes. The suggested framework has practical implications in order to organize EA activities more collaboratively and cross-functionally; e.g., include marketing officers and librarians in EA teams. This article claims originality in its proposition to align EA with a multi-disciplinary approach derived from MOT.

From Enterprise Architect to Opportunity Architect: The Changing Role of Enterprise Architecture in a Digital Transformation Context
 
By Greet Bontinck, Prof. Dr. Bjorn Cumps, Prof. Dr. Stijn Viaene, Dr. Wesley Bille, and Joachim Vanden Brande

A digital transformation is felt in every fibre of the organization. In order to deal with the challenges that come with such a transformation initiative, one-off point solutions are not enough, but a more systemic, architecture-driven approach is needed. What does digital transformation mean for the enterprise architect? Through a multiple case study approach, this research aims to gain insights into the changing role of enterprise architects in a digital transformation context, as well as to identify the new challenges and opportunities arising in this regard. Today, enterprise architects are at a crossroads: the digital transformation projects in their organizations have rendered them more valuable. However, the key question is whether they will focus on enabling and support, or whether they will move one step beyond, leading the way, becoming true opportunity architects.

Short Subject
Architectural Roles in an “Agile Landscape”
By Phil Bowker, Jacques Colle, Kenneth van Rumste

Agile advocates that the role of an architect is part of the process, but only very few resources can be found which describe the role and the deliverables they should create in the projects in which they are contributing. The objective of this article is to provide insights in agile and architecture, describe the role of architects, position the architect in the agile landscape, and define its deliverables.

Book Review
Software Design Decoded: 66 Ways Experts Think
By Marian Petre & André van der Hoek, with Illustrations by Yen Quach
MIT Press, 2016, ISBN 978-0-262-03518-7

Seventy-nine Short Essays on Design
By Michael Bierut
Princeton Architectural Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1-56898-699-9

Reviewed by Leonard Fehskens

A Conceptual Framework for a Professional Code of Ethics for Enterprise Architects
By Leonard Fehskens

A professional code of ethics is generally considered to be an essential element of a professional ecosystem. This article summarizes the key conclusions and recommendations of the sociological literature on codes of ethics that are relevant to the development of such a code for the emerging profession of enterprise architecture, and their implications for such a code.

Abstracts from the Journal of Enterprise Architecture 2016,
issue No. 3

EA Survey Findings: The Challenges and Responses for Enterprise Architects in the Digital Age
By Sharm Manwani and Oliver Bossert

Enterprise architects face many challenges to be relevant to key stakeholders. The growth of digital business offers major opportunities for enterprise architects if these challenges can be addressed. The Enterprise Architecture (EA) Survey created by McKinsey & Company and Henley Business School explores EA outcomes and capabilities to assess the responses to the challenges. This article highlights key findings from the survey as a call to action for EA leaders.

Information Reference Architecture for the Portuguese Health Sector
 
By André Vasconcelos and Tiago Brás

The main goal of information architecture is to identify and define the main types of data that support an organization's business. Information architecture provides the description of the informational entities required for the pursuit of the organization’s business processes. The information architecture aims to identify key information to the business, define the data independently of applications or systems, and provide the basis for the management of corporate data. In a more general way the existence of an Information Reference Architecture (IRA) guiding and restricting the instantiations of a group of architectures and individual solutions is indispensable. In this article we propose a method to develop an IRA in order to ensure easy maintenance and semantic interoperability, through a bottom-up approach that uses a group of Information Systems (IS) in a specific business category. It is a four step, bottom-up method that starts with the mapping of the main IS of a business category, and with reverse engineering, model enhancements, and model integration techniques enables the creation of an IRA. This method is used for proposing the IRA for the Portuguese Health Sector, culminating in the development of an IRA for that sector. We used the Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM) to conduct our research. The method proposed in this work and the corresponding instantiation to the Portuguese Health Sector are assessed with evaluation metrics.

Enterprise Architecture Practice in Retail: Problems and Solutions
By Svyatoslav Kotusev, Mohini Singh, and Ian Storey

Currently Enterprise Architecture (EA) is widely practiced in different organizations working in diverse industries across the globe. Although it is generally acknowledged that there are no universal one-size-fits-all approaches to EA practice suitable to all organizations and industries, features and peculiarities of the approaches to EA followed in different industries are still poorly understood. In this article I analyze the EA practice in a large Australian retail chain operating in the fast-moving consumer goods business, discuss the industry-specific challenges with EA experienced by this company, and describe their potential solutions and mitigation strategies followed by the company.

Short Subject
Guiding Principles to Support Organization-Level Enterprise Architectures
By Aaron Trionfi

Enterprise Architecture (EA) practices have long served as the foundation for information technology solution development. Most EA methods and frameworks claim that these same practices can be applied to the development of an EA for an entire organization, but attempts to develop architecture on this scope routinely fail. The author contends that EA practices and frameworks must be extended to better implement organization-level architectures. An EA program should follow four principles when attempting to develop an organization-level architecture: a strong metamodel over a strong product catalog, business intelligence over modeling, integrated data capture over data calls, and data quality over data quantity.

Short Subject
Next Gen Architecture – IT Trends and the API Effect
By Michael Hinnebusch

On the subject of the digital economy, much is written about API management, also known as “API-ification”. Each Autumn, Gartner makes their annual predictions on IT trends impacting businesses for the upcoming year. Their theme in 2016 centered on an idea which it calls the “digital mesh”. This article brings together the concepts of digital mesh and APIs to highlight their important effects on business today. Organizations need to comprehend how they relate to their customers’ digital experiences. The article includes thought-provoking questions to challenge leaders to look toward the digital horizon and take action. Included is a discussion and a call to action. If followed, the result will provide a foundation for an organization’s digital operating model.

Addressing Enterprise Change Capability, a Constraint in Business Transformation
By Inji Wijegunaratne and Sharma Madiraju

Evidence shows that, more often than not, large IT programs do not succeed, exceeding their budgets, timelines, and delivering abbreviated scope and value. This article endeavors to observe and assess the problem from a capability perspective. We argue that though the solution or the future state is often focused upon and specified, the same level of attention is not devoted to the capabilities – both business and IT – required to bring about the organizational transition. Since the level and scale of transformational capabilities are very different from those needed to run a “business as usual” operation, this mismatch is at the heart of the problem. We then discuss a relatively inexpensive approach to remedy the issue.

Measuring the Quality of Enterprise Architecture Models
By Cameron Spence and Vaughan Michell

In this article we consider how to measure the quality of a set of Enterprise Architecture (EA) models. We review some relevant literature, focusing in particular on conceptual model quality, and adapt a conceptual model for use specifically with sets of EA models. We develop three objective metrics for this purpose, and also consider the conditions necessary for these metrics to converge towards increasing model quality. We conclude with a partial case study where two of these metrics were used in practice that demonstrates how they can be used.

Abstracts from the Journal of Enterprise Architecture 2016,
issue No. 2 Special Issue: The IT4IT™ Reference Architecture

The IT4IT™ Reference Architecture – An Open Standard for IT Management in the Digital Business Era
By Charles Betz and Keith Jahn

The IT4IT Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group,1 is a new Reference Architecture for managing the “business of IT”. It provides prescriptive, holistic guidance for the implementation of IT management capabilities for today’s digital enterprise. The IT4IT standard introduces a formal IT operating model based on the concept of a value chain, and describes a functional systems and data architecture encompassing four major IT value streams: Strategy to Portfolio, Requirement to Deploy, Request to Fulfill, and Detect to Correct. The standard is positioned as a peer to comparable reference architectures such as NRF/ARTS, TM Forum Frameworx™ (aka eTOM™), ACORD™, BIAN™, and other such guidance. The IT4IT Forum, a Forum of The Open Group, was officially launched in Fall 2014, and currently has representation from dozens of companies including Accenture, Achmea, CapGemini, ExxonMobil, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, IBM, Microsoft, MunichRe, PriceWaterhouseCoopers, ServiceNow, and Shell.

Interview
Lars Rossen
Interviewed by Michael Fulton

Two key players in the development of the IT4IT™ Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group talk about its genesis.

The IT4IT™ Standard and Digital Transformation: Why we all Work for a Software Company, and putting The Open Group IT4IT Initiative into Context
By Richard Moore

Dramatic changes in the IT landscape have created a vacuum in IT Governance. The IT4IT Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group, is a promising response to the challenges of Digital Transformation, and continues to build on the hard work done with ITIL® and COBIT® . This article sets the background for the IT4IT story.

Why the IT4IT™ Standard is Good News for Architects
By Dan Warfield

The IT4IT Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group, released last October, is a "standard Reference Architecture and value chain-based operating model for managing the business of IT". The IT4IT standard focuses on the entire range of functions, data, and tools needed to manage the business of IT, including IT Asset Management (ITAM) and IT Operations Management (ITOM) tools. Tool vendors are already moving to support the specification, and it's well positioned to become a prescriptive standard for a key set of IT operations functions, APIs, and information flows. The IT4IT standard offers a data model, API specification, and functional map for automating a layer of disconnected activities and software within and beyond ITAM and ITOM. Eventually, it could replace today's proprietary data models, gnarly integrations, and manual processes. The author believes that the IT4IT standard is a breakthrough for enterprise architects because it provides business-focused semantics that resonate with mainstream managers in a way that more complex models of IT processes (COBIT® , ITIL® , APQC™, etc.) do not, while at the same time being mappable to these “heavier” standards. The IT4IT standard is particularly powerful as a starting point for transformation to deploying a digital service broker delivery model, and as the starter kit for a consistent end-to-end information model for the entire IT Value Chain.

The IT4IT™ Standard as a Model for Managing the Cloud Service Lifecycle
By Louise Ng

Traditional cloud reference architectures can guide enterprises as they set up cloud infrastructure, but they don’t provide a framework for managing the entire cloud service lifecycle end-to-end. However, using the IT4IT Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group, enterprises are able to build and manage hybrid clouds, thus achieving the agility and efficiency necessary for digital transformation.

The IT4IT™ Standard – As a Technologist Why Should I Care and How Can the Mainframe Help Advance my Career?
By David Morlitz

Just as cloud is a disruptive force in technology platforms, the IT4IT Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group, is a disruption of existing operating models. One of the primary value propositions of the IT4IT standard to business is increased cost transparency and IT efficiency. The inherent properties of a mainframe provide business with the most transparent access to usage information in a highly scalable and efficient environment. Using mainframe data to prove the business value of the environment sets the gold standard for financial transparency in an enterprise.

What does the IT4IT™ Standard Mean for the Indian IT Services Industry?
By Anuj Shahi

The Indian IT industry has travelled a long way since its beginning in the late 1970s. Universities have supported rapid growth by having the right courses to support the needed skills. Most solutions have been created and readily available in a standard way. Now is the time to focus on high-end services of alignment between Business and IT. For that, the experienced workforce will have to address Conceptual and Logical needs. The IT4IT Reference Architecture and TOGAF® , standards of The Open Group, are helping in this domain.

Panel Discussion
How the IT4IT™ Reference Architecture Acts as a Digital Business Enabler
Dana Gardner, Chris Davis, Lars Rossen, Ryan Schmierer, David Wright

This is a transcript of a discussion on the value and direction of the IT4IT Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group, for managing IT as a business.

Panel Discussion
How the IT4IT™ Reference Architecture Helps Turn IT into a Transformational Service for Digital Business Innovation
Dana Gardner, Michael Fulton, Philippe Geneste, Sue Desiderio, Dwight David, Rob Akershoek

A transcript of a discussion on the business benefits of transforming IT organizations into agents of change for businesses from The Open Group San Francisco event in January 2016.

The IT4IT™ Standard – Some Personal Reflections
By Charles Betz

The new IT4IT Reference Architecture, a standard of The Open Group, is described in terms of the industry factors giving rise to it, the role of The Open Group, and by answering some frequent critiques. A discussion of the standard’s relationship to Agile methods is also provided.

Abstracts from the Journal of Enterprise Architecture 2016,
issue No. 1

How about Strategy? – A Survey into the Pitfalls of Strategic Alignment
By Melissa Roelfsema, Adina Aldea, Marc Lankhorst and Henry Franken

The prospects are grim for organizations that manage organizational change through a new strategy. In the Strategic Alignment survey, conducted in the second quarter of 2014, 177 managers, consultants, architects, IT specialists and others were asked about the strategic alignment efforts and experiences of their organization. This article presents findings concerning several aspects of the strategy process. Results from the Strategic Alignment survey suggest that organizations still experience significant difficulties during development and implementation of their strategies. Especially, ineffective communication and insufficient organizational capabilities are pitfalls that prevent organizations from reaching strategic alignment.

Inter-Enterprise Architecture
By Yan Zhao, Ph.D

This paper introduces the notion of Inter-Enterprise Architecture (IEA) in response to the current evolution of the business environment and landscape associated with the adoption of common shared services, cloud computing, and social networking. The IEA describes the context, business environment, collaboration channels, partnership opportunities, influential components and relationships across enterprises and business organizations in a selected business domain or service domain for a targeted enterprise or business organization. The IEA enables an enterprise or business organization to understand its position in today’s networked business world. Due to the open and dynamic nature of service adoption and collaboration, and the autonomy of current enterprise structure, culture, and operating environments, it is necessary to explore how a business should be architected across boundaries to effectively respond to the common service and collaboration environment. It is becoming more important for a business to be agile and able to incorporate collaboration elements across organization boundaries. If enterprise architecture is like a city plan, the IEA is more like a plan for a metropolitan area.

Enterprise Architecture Manifesto: Defining Guiding Principles
By Matt Fishbeck

This paper proposes the idea of an Enterprise Architecture Manifesto that consists of ten principles that apply across the context of enterprise architecture, business architecture, business analysis and the wider domain of business transformation. These principles take the format defined within the TOGAF 9 Specification and are written in short form to lean out any unnecessary words, examples, or intended applications and are purely generic in definition. No references have been included because there is no information that has been obtained from other sources; this proposal is a synthesis of experience derived from 20 years’ experience within the software engineering, technology, and now business analysis and enterprise/business architecture disciplines.

The History of Enterprise Architecture: An Evidence-Based Review
By Svyatoslav Kotusev

The conventional wisdom says that the concept of enterprise architecture (EA) originated from the pioneering work of John Zachman. He is frequently referred to as the “father” of EA and many consider the Zachman Framework to be the breakthrough that created the discipline of EA and provided the foundation for all subsequent EA frameworks and methodologies. Is Zachman’s “A Framework for Information Systems Architecture” really the seminal publication of the EA discipline? Is it really the first EA framework? Did it really profoundly influence modern EA methodologies? In order to answer these questions, in this article I describe an evidence-based history of EA and trace the origins of all essential ideas constituting the basis of the modern concept of EA.

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